Sunday, August 9, 2015

Mary McGowan Thornalley (1850 – 1912) My Great Grandmother on my Mother’s Side

Mary McGowan Thornalley
At this time all I know about the first twenty years of Mary McGowan’s life is that she was born in Ireland at the end of the Great Irish Famine that occurred 1845-1850. One million people died during the famine and another million immigrated. Her obituary stated that she was from the city of Dublin. Her father’s name was Roger McGowan – the middle name she gave to my grandfather John Roger Thornally. Roger McGowan was born in Ireland. I don’t know the name of Roger’s wife. Mary had a sister Catherine `Kate’ McGowan who was born in 1853. 

Mary McGowan married William G. Thornalley (1850 – 1913) from Lincolnshire, England on September 12, 1874, when they were both 24 years old. Dublin to Lincolnshire is 250 miles and involves crossing the Irish Sea – which begs the question, how did Mary meet William? They were married at the Church of St. Francis Xavier in New York. The handwritten record of their marriage shows that Mary’s sister Catherine served as a witness. That suggests that Catherine immigrated to the United States with Mary, but the 1910 census states that Catherine immigrated in 1875 – the same year she married John Ogilvie. I’d say the census if off by a year.
St. Francis Xavier Church in New York where Mary and William were married

On the 1900 census Mary and William each reported that they had immigrated to the United States in 1875, but the 1910 census shows that William immigrated in 1868, and Mary four years later in 1872. The later dates make more sense in that they jibe with the date of their marriage, which I am confident, is accurate.  It seems likely that Mary and William met in England or Ireland, made the decision to immigrate and agreed that William would come first, get established and then Mary would join him in the United States, but this is all supposition.  I have looked thoroughly for immigration records but as of yet have not found proof of when either Mary or William came to the United States.

Between the ages of 25 and 37 Mary bore six children: William Gilliat Jr., Charlotte, Harry Melville, John Roger, Samuel McGowan and Rosemary. Gilliat was William’s mother’s maiden name, Roger was Mary’s father’s name, and McGowan was Mary’s maiden name, which all suggests that the name “Melville” is also a family name – possibly Mary’s mother’s maiden name. Such clues can be the genealogist’s friend or nemesis. 
Charolotte Thornalley
Sadly, Charlotte her second born died when Mary was 49. Charlotte died on March 14, 1899 from a blood infection. She was buried at Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland and later her body was moved to Evergreen Cemetery, in East Oakland where she was interred with her father and mother. Charlotte’s brother, John was deeply saddened by his sister’s death and named his daughter Lottie after his beloved sister.

Mary first appeared on a US census on June 4, 1880 when the family was living at 112 Bush Street in San Francisco. This document confirms that Mary and both of her parents were born in Ireland. Will Jr. was 5 and Charlotte “Lottie” was 2.  By 1887, according to the Oakland Directory – similar to a phone book - the family had moved to the East Bay and were living on Bray Avenue (now East 34th Avenue) near the Old County Road (Foothill).

The 1900 census, taken on June 9th, shows the family living at 288 Bray Avenue in the Fruitvale Precinct of Brooklyn Township. The town of Brooklyn was formed in 1856 when Clinton and San Antonio merged. Then in 1872 Brooklyn was annexed into Oakland, so it is curious that Brooklyn was identified as an independent town on the 1900 census. In 1900 there were three teenagers in the household – John 17, Sam 14 and Rosie 13. Will Jr. was 24 and Harry was 21. Will Sr., Will Jr. and Harry were all identified as carpenters, John was a painter, and Sam and Rosie were still in school.
This image is from a tintype loaned
 by my second cousin Jeri Oyarzo Hickey,
 Sam Thornally's granddaughter

The family remained there until 1904 when they moved three blocks to Bray near East 17th Street. Then in 1907 they moved to 1707 Fruitvale. 1707 still exists today but is now number 1715. The house that was originally painted off white is now mint green with white trim. It is a two-story home with wood siding. By the 1910 census only Samuel and Rose Mary were still living at home. Will Sr. was identified as a “Builder” and Sam was working as a carpenter. Rose Mary was employed as a stenographer and worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad. Her father and older brother Will had both worked for the S.P. Company in 1889 but were no longer there in 1910.
1707 (1715) Fruitvale home on the right, 2015

Mary and William were still living at 1707 Fruitvale when Mary died in 1912 from pneumonia.  The obituary that appeared on January 12th in the Fruitvale Progress noted that she’d been a resident for 35 years. It said, “She was one of the oldest pioneers and had many friends who are mourning her death. Mrs. Thornalley was a member of the Fruitvale Congregational Church.” The church was designed by Hugo William Storch and was dedicated November 16, 1911. Storch also designed the Fruitvale Masonic Temple (1909) that William built, and was a member of. 

The notice of Mary’s funeral announced said the service would be January 18th at 2:00 PM at the Congregational Church and that she would be buried at Evergreen Cemetery. Evergreen Cemetery opened in 1902, so was quite new when Mary was interred there. Today, it is also the final resting place of 412 victims the Jonestown mass suicide precipitated by Jim Jones. Other notables buried at Evergreen include Earl “Father” Hines a jazz pianist and Huey P. Newton, Black Panther leader.
Fruitvale Congregational Church on Fruitvale Ave at 18th Street
where Mary attended church and where her funeral was held.
Oakland History Room photo.

I was only five when my grandfather John died, so even if he had talked about his mother I would not remember what he’d said but from the photograph I have of my great grandmother she looks like a sweet woman and wonderful mother. I imagine her as petite with brown hair and blue eyes. I know she was courageous – she had to have been to leave Ireland and her family in order to make a new life in America. She raised four sons who were all successful tradesman and a daughter who was a professional woman – something quite rare at that time.

Sources for this post include several Oakland Directories, the 1880, 1900 and 1910 censuses, Mary's obituary and other newspaper articles, the Oakland History Room, and visits to the Fruitvale neighborhood of Oakland.

Friday, July 24, 2015

Sarah Murray Drake Stover (1794-1874) my Third Great-Grandmother on my Father’s side

Sarah & William would have lived in a house similar to this
near the Watauga River in Elizabethton, Tennessee
Sarah M. Drake was born circa 1794. Some records show she was born in 1794 and others say 1795. One source provides an exact date of September 7, 1794. Similarly, various sources suggest different places of birth including Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, somewhere in South Carolina and the Southwest Territory of Tennessee.  I tend to believe that she was born in Pennsylvania because there are records of her parents, Abraham Drake (1761-1840) and Elizabeth Murray Drake (1773-1856), living in Cumberland County Pennsylvania at that time.

Sarah was the fourth child of ten. She had four brothers: Samuel, Ephraim, Jacob and John, and five sisters: Salina, Ruth, Priscilla, Mary and Elizabeth. By the time Sarah was two years old her family was living in Carter County, Tennessee where she remained for the rest of her life. In 1796, the family appeared on a tax record in Carter County. This was the same year that the area became known as Carter County. It was named for Landon Carter an early settler and land owner. The town of Elizabethton, the county seat, was named for his wife.
The Watauga River

Sarah’s father Abraham was a prominent citizen in Carter. He owned land and slaves, served on juries, and was appointed to oversee the construction of a road along the Watauga River from Indian Creek up to and beyond the mouth of Sugar Creek.
Record of William and Sarah's marriage
 On September 23, 1819 Sarah married William Ward Lincoln Stover (1795-1864). They were married in Carter County, Tennessee. The text of the marriage contract reads:
State of Tennessee, Carter County know all men by these present that we William Stover and Isaac Campbell are held and firmly bound unto his excellency Joseph McMinn, Governor for the time being and his successor in office in the full and just sum of fifteen hundred dollars void on condition that those be ______ (cannot read) to obstruct marriage between William Stover and Sarah M. Drake.
Witness our hands and seals this 23rd day of September 1819.
William Stover
Isaac Campbell 
Governor Joseph McMinn

Sarah and William had three sons between 1820 and 1826 – David Lincoln b.1820, Samuel Murray b. 1824 and Daniel b. 1826. See my first blog post dated June 28, 2013 to learn more about David Lincoln Stover.

According to the Lincoln Magazine Sarah helped care for her mother-in-law Mary Ward Lincoln in 1831 as Mary was dying of breast cancer. Mary Lincoln was President Abraham Lincoln’s great aunt.

In 1840, Sarah inherited two slaves named Dave and Allen from her father Abraham when he died. Her husband William served as a surety for the inventory of Abraham’s property. Other property was given to her mother and siblings.

Sarah appeared on the 1850 census along with her husband, two of their children and her mother Eliza. Sarah was 55 when the census was taken. This was the first census that listed all family members by name. Her eldest son David was married two years before the census so was not included in the household.  The census shows that the family was living on their farm that was valued at $6000. Their 26 year old son Samuel was identified as a physician. No profession is given for their youngest son Daniel, 23, so presumably he was helping his father with the farming.

In 1852, Sarah and William agreed to sell several tracts of land to their son Daniel. The document specified that Sarah and William would be able to continue to live on the land for life. The property was on the north side of the Watauga River on Green Mountain in Carter County.
1860 Elizabethton census showing William and Sarah Stover

On June 15th 1860 William and Sarah appeared on the census taken in Elizabethton. Their farm was valued at $3000 and their personal estate at $11,000. Likely most of this value consisted of the slaves they owned. Interestingly, their son Daniel was the Assistant Marshall at the time and is identified as the census taker in the top right hand corner. Ten years later when the census was taken on August 22, 1870, William had died and Sarah was living with her son Samuel and his family – wife Carolina and 6 children Minnie, Belle, Amelia, William, Sallie and Charles. In 1870, they were living in Sullivan County just north of Carter bordering Virginia.
1870 Sullivan County census showing some of Samuel Stovers children and Sarah M. Stover on line 7

According to William’s will Sarah inherited all of his household and kitchen furniture, his horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, mules and all of his farming utensils and his black smith tools. Negros left to Sarah via his will were Delilah, Sam, Dan and Jo. William stipulated that should Sarah remarry these slaves were to remain her personal property and “were not to be subject to the control of any husband she may hereafter marry.” William left Sarah the tract of land known as the Mill Tract and a separate tract of land purchased from their son Samuel on the south side of Holston Mountain and containing 100 acres. Holston Mountain is in the Blue Ridge Mountains and is part of the Appalachian Mountains. 

As with her birth records the details I have about where Sarah died are not perfectly clear. A fellow genealogist Dale Jenkins provided me with a photograph of her headstone that reads, “Sarah M Stover wife of W.L. Stover, 1795 – 1874. I believe Sarah is buried with other family members in Drake’s Cliff Cemetery (aka Fitzsimmons Cemetery) in Elizabethton. An article published in the Watauga Association of Genealogists (WAG), Vol. 40 notes that Sarah died about 1874 in Carter County, but another source says, “that she died at her son Samuel’s home”. This fact does not jibe with Samuel living in Sullivan County, but we can be certain of the general time and place.
Drake's Cliff cemetery where Sarah & William are buried

Sarah’s will was recorded in Carter County on the 24th of April 1874. She bequeathed her possessions to her one living son, two daughters-in-law and her grandchildren. She left her gold watch to her granddaughter Sallie, her silver spoons, one bed and bedding to her son Samuel, and a small bed and bedding to her grandson Charlie Dan Stover. Another grandson, William Butler Stover received a double barreled gun that had been owned by his grandfather William Stover. Granddaughter Amelia Stover got a looking glass, a breast pin, a clock, a bathrobe, furniture and bedding. Sarah also left money to pay to educate her grandchildren. And, finally she left money to her daughter-in-law Mary J. Brown who had remarried after her husband Daniel Stover died. All of this suggests that Sarah was relatively well off at the time of her death.
Sarah's headstone

Sources for this post include: 1850, 1860 and 1870 censuses, marriage record, Carter County Deed Records, the wills of William Stover and Sarah Stover, Dale Jenkins, Google, Ancestry, Drake Family History by Donald Drake, Watauga Association of Genealogy, and the Lincoln Magazine.

Sunday, June 14, 2015

James Henry Pattillo (1814-after 1900) My Paternal 2nd Great Grandfather Part 1

Goode Bank in Boydton, Virginia, 1899
James H. Pattillo was the son of Samuel W. Pattillo and Sally C. Phillips. He had three younger brothers, Robert Alexander, Charles Madison, and Edward M. Pattillo. They had one sister Ann R. James and his siblings were all born in Mecklenburg County, Virginia. Mecklenburg is located on the southern border of the state. He was born during the War of 1812, when James Madison was president. He and his siblings grew up living on a farm.

When James was 31 he and Susan C. Land were married on December 16, 1845, in Mecklenburg. Their first child, a son, Robert Henry was born in 1847, and my great grandfather James William was born May 15, 1848. Sadly, his mother Susan died shortly after James W. was born – very likely during childbirth. Left with two infant sons, James chose to marry Susan’s older sister Louisa J. Land on September 4, 1849, when he was 35. They were married across the state border in North Carolina, because it was illegal to marry your widow’s sister in the state of Virginia. James and Louisa had two additional children - daughters Sarah Zerelda, born in 1853 and Ada, born November 4, 1857. 
Jame H. and Louisa J. Land's record of marriage

The name James is significant in our family. Our first ancestor to immigrate to the United States was James Pattillo – my 6th great grandfather. He was born in Scotland in 1690 and came to the United States in 1716. His son, James Jr. was the first to be born in the United States in 1725, in Prince George County, Virginia. James Henry’s first son was James William who also named his first son James H. This James was born in 1882 and died in 1883.  James William’s oldest son that lived to adulthood, Lewis gave the name James Edward, to his first born son. James Edward is my father. This is the sort of tradition that makes family history research challenging. I have 17 James Pattillo’s in my database, so far.

James Henry was educated – probably by a private tutor hired to teach him and his siblings at home. We know he was educated because as an adult he held positions that required him to have an education. On the 1870 census, James was living with his wife Louisa, two daughters, and Elizabeth Walker and her daughter. Elizabeth was identified as a “teacher in family”. Most likely, Elizabeth was a war widow – from the Civil War – and hired herself out as a teacher in order to support herself and her daughter. James H. hired her to educate his children. It is likely his father had done the same. There was a large college in the town where James H. and his family lived – Randolph-Macon College, but there are no records of any Pattillos having attended. Randolph-Macon was a Methodist college. The Pattillo’s were most likely Presbyterians. 

1850 Census showing James H., Louisa J., and sons Robert and James

Land Owner, Farmer & Entrepreneur
Throughout his life James purchased property to start and expand his farm and other business endeavors. All were in Mecklenburg County. When he was 24 he bought a 307 acre parcel for $1200 on Cox’s Creek. The next year he bought 100 acres for $150. Then in February of 1853 he acquired a 440 acre parcel on Coleman’s Creek for $1100. In October of the same year he purchased a steam-powered sawmill, also on Coleman’s Creek, a little south of the town of Boydton. In January of 1857, James and his brother-in-law John B. Land made an agreement with Benjamin Lewis Jr. to purchase 408 acres on Layton’s Creek for $800. This parcel was known as the Hayes tract, and adjoined land that John already owned. John was Susan and Louisa’s younger brother. Another court case proved that James and John B. Land were in business together as Land and Pattillo. They cut, milled and sold lumber.

In 1860, James acquired three additional parcels. He bought a 66-acre and a 9-acre tract of land on River Road from Alfred Boyd, and a 222 acre tract from William Townes for $1400. Finally, in 1863 there is a record of his buying 250 acres at the fork in the road at Fields & Fields Mill Roads. The deed for this parcel noted that he paid $11 per acre rather than giving the total price. This last purchase, made when he was 49, occurred in the middle of the Civil War – James must have felt optimistic that the Confederates would win the war. All total these acquisitions add up to 1762 acres. I don’t know if he owned this much land at any one time. He may have sold some parcels in order to purchase others.
Survey of  66-acre track of farmland James purchased in 1860
While traveling in Virginia in spring of 2014, I went to the Mecklenburg County Courthouse in Boydton – the town where our ancestors lived. Boydton is a small, low-income town in southern Virginia, founded in 1812. It is located just north of the border with North Carolina. In 2014, the town had a population of only 430 and was a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places.  The county courthouse in Boydton is a Roman Revival style brick building with four ionic columns and was constructed in 1838-42. It was listed on the National Register in 1975.

I went to the courthouse to look up the deed records for all the Pattillos who lived in the county, for the time period when the county was first formed in 1764 to the early 20th century. The oldest document I found was from 1772. It was about James Pattillo (1725-1785), my fifth great grandfather having purchased 190 acres on Cox’s Creek from William and Martha Douglas. The most recent record they had was dated 1928. One of the records I found, dated October 15, 1845 was about a dispute between James and Edward Pattillo, his brother and a man named Lewis William. James had borrowed money from Williams and his brother Edward served as his surety. Both James and Edward believed the debt had been paid back but Williams was disputing that.

From this court document I learned that James and Edward were in business together. They owned a mercantile store and had sold supplies – “a hogshead of sugar and 2 bags of coffee” to Williams. So, it sounds like they owned a general store. According to Wikipedia, “A hogshead was used in American colonial times to transport and store tobacco. It was a very large wooden barrel. A standardized hogshead measured 48 inches long and 30 inches in diameter at the head. Fully packed with tobacco, it weighed about 1,000 pounds.”

As part of this business James agreed to sell 6000 mulberry sapling shoots (Morus multicaulis) to Williams. The saplings were to be delivered between October and November in 1840, and each sapling was to be 6-feet high at a minimum. Williams had agreed to pay 2 ¾ cents for each sapling or $165. This seemed a peculiar piece of trivia that was explained by a textile history website.
Mulberry leaf - grown to make silk
The story of the silk industry in America dates to the earliest English settlers in Virginia.  James I tried to compel Virginia tobacco planters to stop cultivating tobacco, plant mulberry trees and sustain silk worms to supply raw silk to English factories.  As early as 1623, he decreed that a planter would be fined £10 if he did not cultivate at least ten mulberry trees for every 100 acres of his plantation.  Bounties were extended in 1657:  10,000 pounds of tobacco for every £200 worth of silk or cocoons in a single year.  The bounty was extended, dropped, extended again and abandoned.  No one wanted to "farm" silk when they could grow tobacco.  Silk was too labor-intensive.

In the early decades of the 19th century, silk culture continued to entice investment.  No one hit it big but people kept trying.  There was tremendous speculation in the 1830s.  A new variety of mulberry was introduced from China by way of the Philippines, then France and into Baltimore.  Gideon B. Smith was introduced from China by way of the Philippines, then France and into Baltimore.  Gideon B. Smith planted the first trees there in 1826.  Growth was more rapid and the leaved were several times larger.  When news spread, nurserymen were inundated.  The demand soon exceeded supply and a wild rush took place.

When James was born his family was living in the county of Mecklenburg. I have a Circuit Court record dated 1819 that confirms that they were living in the town of Boydton. James was still living in Boydton when the 1850 and 1860 censuses were taken. On the 1850 census, they noted that his property was valued at $3235, which was a little more than every other property owner listed on that page.  He owned a total of 600 acres, 47 of which was “improved” which probably meant it had been cleared and his house and other structures were built on it. He owned machinery valued at $30, and $261 worth of livestock. 
Mecklenburg County Courthouse in Boydton

On the 1860 agriculture census James owned 450 acres of which 150 were improved. The value of his farm was $4000 plus he owned furnishings valued at $100, 3 horses, 5 milk cows, and 1 “other stock” – probably a pig. The value of his livestock was $400. The census recorded that he was growing sorghum – a grain grown primarily as livestock forage. The rest of the information provided on this detailed census was not legible.

By 1870, James had moved to the neighboring community of Hansford in the town of Christianville. Christianville, now called Chase City or “The City” is also in Mecklenburg County. On the 1880 census, James was living in Lunenberg County, in the Lewiston District. He was living with his daughter Ann and his son Robert, Robert’s wife Belle and their two children, James Nelson and Robert Watkins Pattillo. The last census James appeared on was the 1900 census. At that time he was 86 and was back living in Christianville. Christianville was named for Samuel C. Christian, a merchant from Scotland and the first postmaster.

Like his father and grandfather, James was a farmer – a tobacco farmer. When Dianne and I visited the site of James' farm in 2014, the land had been purchased by a timber company that was using it to grow pulp wood. The remains of 6 buildings and structures were visible from the road. These included a collapsed stable, a chicken house - a low, small building with a flat roof, a flue-cured tobacco barn with mud dabbing between the timbers, a corn crib, a utility barn and a smoke house.
Farm owned by James H. and Louisa. Left-right: smoke house, chicken coup, utility shed & roof of the corn crib
John Caknipe, a local historian who took us to the property, explained that the house had been gone for a long time - probably destroyed by termites. It would have been constructed on high ground and all the farm buildings were been in the back yard.  The house would have been similar to the barn stylistically with the bedrooms upstairs and the living room and dining room downstairs. Each slave family would have had their own house.

John explained that James’ land would have been considered a farm – not a plantation. To be considered a plantation owner one needed to have at least 1000 acres of land, at least 20 slaves, be educated and own a library.

In addition to growing tobacco, the primary cash crop, James would have been growing vegetables for his family and 13 slaves who helped work the farm. He had chickens, probably 30-35 hogs, 50 sheep, and 10-12 milk cows. Excess crops and animals would have been sold to Randolph-Macon College, as would those of his neighbors - the Wootens, Carters and Jones.

Tobacco was the primary crop grown in Virginia – it was grown there as early as 1632 according to Susan Bracey in her book “Life on the Roaring Roanoke”. Bracey notes, “It was a crop of especial importance to Mecklenburg because, in part, it was responsible for the establishment of several towns and for much of the economic fortunes of the county.” She continues, “The cultivation, inspection, transportation and sale of tobacco were the source of much concern.” 
Tobacco warehouse in Mecklenburg

As early as 1753, locals campaigned for a tobacco warehouse to be built in Mecklenburg County so they would not have to ship their tobacco to the port of Petersburg for processing. In 1792, the town of St. Tammany was laid out near the Roanoke River where tobacco could be loaded and shipped out. A tobacco warehouse was built by 1793 that enabled them to do tobacco inspections there as well. The town of Clarksville – across the river from Boydton was established in 1818 and was promoted as “the richest tobacco country in the state of Virginia”.

..... continued in part 2.

James Henry Pattillo (1814-after 1900) My Paternal 2nd Great Grandfather Part 2

Civic Life & Role During the Civil War
This is the house James & his family lived in during the time
he served as Superintendent of the Poor House
In 1848, when James was 34, the Governor appointed him Superintendent of the Poor House. This was one of only 5 appointed positions the Governor made, so it was a prestigious appointment. James’ father and grandfather had both lived in Mecklenburg County. His grandfather Solomon died in the town of Boydton. So James’ family would have been well known. He was an important person in the community who was no doubt well-regarded by his peers, so a good candidate for appointment. During his time in office James and his family lived in the superintendent’s house near the poor house. It was a symmetrically design, 2-story structure with a stone foundation, 2 dormers and 2 brick chimneys. The poor house is where poor county residents, war widows and the disable lived. Residents worked on the Poor House farm raising food for them and for sale. Two years after his appointment James was elected to serve a second two-year term.
Mecklenburg County Poor House
Susan and Louisa’s father Robert Carter Land died sometime before April 1847.  Some sources say he died in 1844 but it wasn’t until 1855 that his estate was being settled in Chancery Court. Susan and Louisa’s brother Robert W. Land (1818-1877) was named administrator. The land and property in the estate was divided among Robert’s wife Elizabeth and their children. Because married women were not allowed to own property at that time James Henry inherited the portion of the estate that was left to both Susan and Louisa. This no doubt explains why the value of what James Henry owned was greater than anyone else listed on the page in the 1850 census. 

On September 19, 1855 James Henry and Robert W. Land filed a $1000 bond, and James was named administrator of his deceased wife Susan’s estate.
Poor House smokehouse (white structure), relocated

On September 27, 1856 James was appointed as the attorney-in-fact for Alexander W. Land- another of James’ brother-in-laws, and was charged with overseeing the sale and distribution of Elizabeth B. Land’s estate. Elizabeth was his mother-in-law.

In October of 1861, John T Wootton was appointed surveyor of the Boydton to Clarksville Road from Randolph-Macon College to Townes plantation. He was authorized to use hands from six farms. James provided one laborer to work on the road as did five of his neighbors. They built the section between Butchers Creek and Randolph-Macon College. The road was about 100 yards way from James and Louisa’s farm. The other farms that loaned labor included D.N. Carter, J.W. Wootton, and Wm H. Jones. According to Wikipedia “Boydton/Clarksville was the terminus of the 19th-century "Boydton Plank Road" which led to Petersburg. This 80-mile road was covered with wooden planks, making it superior to other roads which were just unpaved dirt and rutted.”

During the Civil War (1861-1865) James was too old to enlist. Instead he was appointed Captain of a militia group. In that capacity he and a group of his neighbors were responsible for patrolling the town and Randolph-Macon College. Other members of the squad were R.H. Isbell, James Steward and Wm. Snead. Randolph-Macon was founded as a Methodist Seminary and was an important institution in the county. During the Civil War it became a military cadet training school. After the war the school was relocated to Ashland, Virginia. The Boydton campus closed in 1868 – 3 years after the Civil War ended. The ruin of the college building still stands, now covered with vines and piles of brick that have fallen off this once impressive building. 
Ruin of Randolph-Macon College in Boydton, 2014

James also contributed to the Confederate war effort by providing 190 pounds of sheaf oats to help feed soldier's horses. A document from the War Department dated December 28, 1863 was a receipt for $7.60 for the oats James delivered on October 15, 1863. It was signed by Jack E. Haskins, Quartermaster CS Army and by Jas. H. Pattillo.

On September 17, 1873, James appeared in the Mecklenburg Circuit Court to respond to a contempt of court charge for failing to appear for jury duty – guess they took such things more seriously at that time than they do today.
War Department receipt for sheaf  oats
supplied by James H. Pattillo
In January of 1878, James served as a trustee for Mary Jane Pattillo, his brother Edward’s wife, so she could purchase a five-acre tract of land adjacent to where James was living. This deed did not mention Edward.

After the Civil War
When the civil war ended the land James and other confederates owned was so heavily taxed that many were forced to sell their land. According to John Caknipe, “the tax was as much as 100% of the land value, so the only way to pay the tax was to sell the land.” This is how the civil war was paid for and the country rebuilt. The tax was repealed in 1868 but by then it was too late - most farmers had lost their land.

It appears that James was one of those farmers who was forced to sell his land. I found a document dated September 1, 1866 in which James sold to his brother Edward a one half interest in his 246 acre farm on the headwaters of Layton’s Creek for $5. In exchange, Edward provided a bond for $1242.79 to cover James’ debts. This was the parcel that James had purchased jointly with his brother-in-law, John B. Land. In addition to the land he sold one horse, a pair of mules, a stock of hogs, his cattle and sheep, his household and kitchen furniture, plantation utensils, a small carriage, one buggy, one wagon, one cart, and all of his crops of every description.  
James would have come here to the Boydton Tavern to
accept his appointment as Captain of the Militia

The document then detailed all of James’ debt, which were divided into three categories. The first class debt was owed to the estate of R. Walker who had sold the land to James and John. James also owed $408.36 to his sister-in-law Sarah F. Land and $670.80 to N.S. Edmunds – likely a relation to his sister Ada who married Lewis J. Edmunds. He owed $45 to a Dr. L. Watson and, interestingly the document specified that he was to pay Edmund A. Davis $400 in “Confederate currency”. Given that the Confederates lost the war that money was probably not worth much. There were six other first class debts.

Second class debt was money owed to Dr. William H. Innis against a loan of $800 that James and John B. Land took out for their lumber business. Third class debts were owed to Alfred Boyd & Son and Edwin C. Terry. The document said that James would “retain possession of the property conveyed until the same shall be sold to execute the purpose of the trust. The trustee is hereby authorized and directed to apply the proceeds of the sale of said property after first paying the expenses of executing and recording this deed to the payment and discharge of the debt.”

After he sold the farm and much of what he owned, James moved to Christianville and likely continued to farm, but as a share cropper. Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land.

James’ son James William left Boydton sometime between July 1860 when the census was taken and April 2, 1879 when he married Carrie B. Stover in Tarrant, Texas. It is probable that James W. left shortly after the Civil War ended, knowing that there was little reason for him to remain in Virginia. I can imagine that this would have been extremely difficult for everyone. The Pattillo’s had lived and prospered in Mecklenburg and nearby counties for five generations. They had owned large acreage of land, had standing in the community – and then rather suddenly everything was taken from them with the Confederate defeat. The lives they’d known for generations were profoundly changed. James W. chose to leave Mecklenburg and everything familiar in order to make a new life for himself. It is doubtful that James Henry ever saw his son again, or any of James William’s children.
James William Pattillo with his 3 oldest
children Jo, Mary & Lewis

James’s son, Robert Henry Pattillo remained in Mecklenburg, married and had five children, 2 sons and 3 daughters. Interestingly, three of Robert’s children followed their uncle to California and lived in Los Angeles. Robert’s eldest son, Robert Nelson Pattillo worked with James William in the concrete finishing business, and later started his own concrete business. Robert Henry died in July of 1899 when he was only 41 years old. His father James would have been 75. Louisa, James’ second wife, died sometime before the 1900 census.

During this time, James Henry witnessed the marriages of four of his children after the war concluded. Sarah Z. married John W.Gaulding in 1874 when James was 60. Then Robert H. had married Belle Nelson in 1875, James W. married Carrie Brooks Stover in 1879, and his youngest, Ada married Thomas W. Browder in 1888.

The last census that James appeared on was taken in June of 1900. At that time he was living in Christianville with his youngest daughter Ada, her husband Thomas and their four children. Thomas was a farmer. James probably died in Christianville. Someday I hope to visit Virginia again and will look for his grave or other evidence of when he died and where he was buried.

James Henry Pattillo's signature

Sources: US Censuses, Circuit Court documents, will book records, marriage record, Fold3 and John Caknipe, Historian

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Susan C. Land (ca. 1817 – ca.1849), My Paternal Second Great Grandmother

Mecklenburg County Courthouse in Boydton where Susan lived
Susan C. Land was my great grandfather James William Pattillo’s mother. She was born about 1817 probably in Buckingham County, Virginia where her older sister and younger brother were born. Buckingham County is located in the geographic center of Virginia. It was formed as a county in 1761 and was a farming region when Susan lived there. She was the second child of Robert Carter Land and his first wife Sarah, whose last name is unknown.

Their first child, a daughter named Louisa J. Land was born in 1815 and their third child, a son named Robert W. Land was born in 1818. Susan’s mother Sarah died sometime after Robert was born, so Susan’s father Robert married a second time to Elizabeth Brame Hutchison.

Elizabeth was the daughter of John Hutchison and his wife Sarah. She was born in 1801 and married Robert Carter Land on the 5th of April in 1824, when she was 23 years old. Elizabeth and Robert had five additional children in the following order. Sarah Ann Francis born about 1826; Helen M. Land born about 1827; Elizabeth Amelia born 1829; John Braxton Land born October 4th 1833; and Alexander Wesley Land born about 1836.   Susan’s stepmother Elizabeth died on May 1, 1855.
Boyd Tavern in Boydton designed by Jacob Holt, 1785
Elizabeth’s father, Robert Carter Land died in 1844. His will was dated December 26th, 1844 . In the will he left one third of his estate to his wife Elizabeth and the remaining two thirds was to be divided equally among his eight children. His property would have included land, household furnishings, animal stock, as well as 17 Negro slaves. Susan received a young girl slave named Eliza valued at $375, and she had to pay her sister Sarah $6.25 and her brother Alexander $12.50, in order to make the division between the 8 siblings of equal value.

Robert Carter Land owned multiple pieces of property. His family lived on a 195 acre parcel between Black Stone Creek and Walkers Spring Branch in Buckingham County, Virginia. One of several documents I found at the Library of Virginia, included with his last will and testament, has a surveyor’s drawing of the family farm.
Robert C. Land's farm where Susan grew up,  Buckingham Co., Virginia

On December 16th 1845 Susan C. Land married James Henry Pattillo in Mecklenburg, Virginia. Susan’s brother Robert W. Land served as the surety - “a person who takes responsibility for another's performance of an undertaking”, and Charles M. Pattillo, one of James Henry’s brothers served as a bondsman – “a person who stands surety for a bond”.  Mecklenburg County is 75 miles south of Buckingham County on the southern border of the State of Virginia. Traveling 75 miles in 1845 would have been a fairly significant journey, so it makes one wonder how they met and courted one another.
Corn crib on James Henry Pattillo's farm, Boydton, Virginia

Prior to their marriage James Henry had purchased at least two parcels of land in the city of Boydton in Mecklenburg County, Virginia. He bought 307 acres on Cox’s Creek in 1838 and another 100 acres in 1839. The county of Mecklenburg was organized on March 1, 1765 – it split off from Lunenburg County that had grown too large and was divided into 3 counties.  Boydton was incorporated in 1834.  A new County Courthouse was built at 911 Madison Street in 1838-42. Today, the courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 2002, the entire town of Boydton – including 199 contributing buildings - was designated a National Historic District.
Tobacco barn on Pattillo-Land farm

Dianne and I visited Boydton in 2014 and toured the town and nearby area with local historian John Caknipe. John took us to the farm that had been owned by James Henry Pattillo – where he and his family lived and grew tobacco.  The 275 acre site is now overgrown with brambles and sapling trees.  John pointed out the remnants of James’ farm buildings – a smoke house, the slave quarters, a chicken house, a stable, a corn crib, a utility barn, and a tobacco barn. There was no trace of the home where James and Susan and/or her sister Louisa lived.
Household furnishings of the period, Clarksville, VA museum

Susan gave birth to two children - a son Robert Henry Pattillo was born in 1847. Her second child, another son James William Pattillo, my great grandfather, was born May 15th 1848. Both were born in Mecklenburg County. I have not found a record of Susan’s death but I do have a record of James  marrying Susan’s older sister Louisa on September 4, 1849. It suggests that Susan had died during childbirth or as a result of complications from the birth. Henry would have needed a wife to help him raise his two young sons. Hopefully, Henry and Louisa’s marriage and life together was more than just a practical solution to the problems created by Susan’s untimely death.
Typical slave quarters pre-Civil War

Interestingly, James ’s brother Robert Alexander Pattillo also married one the Land daughters – he married Susan and Louisa’s stepsister Helen M. Land on November 21, 1849 – about one month after James married Louisa.

Sunday, July 20, 2014

Heinrich Friedrich Menge (1852 - 1940), My Maternal Great Grandfather

Heinrich Friedrich Menge
Heinrich Friedrich Menge was born May 31, 1852 in a town called Goslar in Hanover, Germany. According to Wikipedia Goslar is a UNESCO World Heritage site. He was the son of Heinrich Christian Menge and Joanne Prelle. Heinrich Christian was a glove maker but that is all I know about him. I don’t even know if there were other children in the family – probably there were several children but until I go to Germany to do research we won’t know. 

According to the 1940 census Heinrich Friedrich “Henry” left school after completing the eighth grade which was not unusual at that time. In about 1869, when he was only 17, he served in the German army as a lieutenant. Ten years later he married Elizabeth Ingles Stolte on September 16, 1879. Elizabeth was the daughter of Louise Bremeke and Casper Stolte, a cooper master – someone who made kegs and barrels. Henry named his daughter Emma Louise no doubt after his mother-in-law.
Page from Emma Menge's book about her parents written in German

When Henry was 27 his father Christian died in February of 1880. About a year and a half later he and Elizabeth immigrated to the United States. They sailed from Bremen, Germany and arrived in New York on September 9, 1881 – the same year that US President Garfield was assinated. I don’t know how they traveled to California but it was probably by train, and I don’t know what they did in route but they were in San Francisco by 1883 and were living at 520 Folsom Street when their daughter Emma Louise Menge was born on August 1, 1883. 
Emma Louise with her parents Heinrich & Elizabeth

As early as 1884 Henry was listed in the San Francisco city directory (equivalent to a telephone book) working as a “bandagist” at J.H.A.Folkers & Brothers at 118 Montgomery Street. An ad in the 1890 directory lists J.H.A. Folkers under Truss Manufacturers and describes the business as manufacturing the: “Best Trusses, Shoulder Braces and Apparatus for Deformities. Only first class Goods on hand and to order.” 

In 1885, when Henry was 33 he was still living in San Francisco at 909 Buchanan but by March 17, 1886 he had moved to the East Bay and was living in Oakland where his son Heinrich “Henry Jr.” Friedrich was born. From 1888 to 1892 he lived at 911 Adeline Street in Oakland in what was identified as a “pre-industrial home” according to the census records.  This would suggest it was a simply built structure lacking post-industrial amenities. Today that site has been redeveloped as the Courtyards at Acorn – an affordable housing complex. In 1892 the Menge family was living at 1450 Fruitvale Avenue. Henry continued to live at this address until sometime after 1907.  By 1912 he had moved to 1505 11th Avenue where he continued to live for 28 years until his death in 1940.  Sanborn maps from 1910 to 1923 indicate the house was valued between $1300 - $2400, they show he had $200 of personal property and a car valued at $100. In 2014 I went to the site but the home was gone. 
Sanborn map showing Henry's property on E. 15th & 11th Ave

According to voter registration data Henry became a naturalized US citizen on August 30, 1888. A handwritten note stamped “Vital Search” and dated 4/19/22 provides several details of information: Henry is described as a native of Germany since 1852; he lived at 1450 Fruitvale Avenue near 16th Avenue from 1888-89. That property is now a commercial building that houses several small businesses and La Clinica.  The census showed his occupation as a truss maker, and that he was naturalized in Brooklyn Township, Fruitvale Precinct 3, in Alameda County. So he was naturalized before Brooklyn had merged with Oakland and was still considered a separate city. After becoming a citizen he registered as a democrat consistently.  
Note found on Google regarding Henry's naturalization

On January 6, 1890 Henry and Elizabeth’s second son Hugo Friedrich “Fred” or “Fritz” was born in Hildesheim, Germany. So they went to Germany to visit family and while there Fred was born.  Their daughter Emma would have only been 6 ½ when they made the trip but she remembered and talked about having gone to Germany with her family.

Henry’s wife Elizabeth died on June 12, 1895 from pneumonia when she was only 40 years old. Henry spent a few years as a widower before he married for the second time to Edna Francis Scholtzhauer, known as “Addie”.  Addie was born on May 11, 1858 in El Dorado County, California and worked as a matron at St. Paul’s Hospital in Oakland. It was a second marriage for Addie as well. She and Henry had a daughter named Adelaide who was born in February of 1898, so at 15 Emma and her brothers had a half-sister. Strangely, I have no recollection of Gramma ever speaking of a sister though there were many references to her brother Henry and a few of her brother Fred. Addie had 4 other children from a previous marriage but by 1900 only 3 were living. I only know the name of one of these children – she had a daughter named Dorothy Scholtzhauer nicknamed Doad – rhymes with Toad – must have been a great cause for teasing.
Addie Schlotzhauer 

On August 8, 1922 Addie and Henry visited Germany again to see relatives. They left from New York on a ship called Manchuris and landed in Hamburg. Henry’s passport application verifies several key statistics about his life and it also provided a photo and physical description as follows: he was 5’10”, had gray hair, blue eyes, fair complexion, and “a full face with a medium nose, medium forehead, medium mouth and round chin”.  He had “no distinguishing marks”. His granddaughter Dorothy Menge described his personality as “an old goat and a grouch”. 

A newspaper article dated September 12, 1903 notes that Henry and Addie purchased lot 7 of the Bray Tract in Brooklyn Township. Another article dated April 28, 1907 reported that they gave the lot to Henry’s son Henry and his daughter Emma. This was a few months before Emma married John Thornally, so the land may have been a wedding gift. The Bray tract is the same part of Oakland where William Thornally purchased a tract of land and developed it with his son Will Jr. as single-family homes. Addie died at 68 on January 11, 1927 and is buried at St. Mary’s cemetery in Oakland.

At some point Henry formed his own business – the Pacific Truss Company or he may have taken over Folkers and renamed it. The Pacific Truss Company was destroyed during the San Francisco earthquake and fire. The Oakland Tribune’s April 19th 1906 coverage of the aftermath of the fire and earthquake included a story that referenced the Pacific Truss Company.  The headline read: “Opera Company has Terrible Experience” and referred to Mr. and Mrs. Menge who “lost $10,000 in the destruction of their store occupied by the Pacific Truss Company, at 321 Twentieth street, besides $600 advance rent they had paid on the building.” The article also noted that Mr. and Mrs. Menge were connected with Maison Piedmont – a restaurant owned by Paul Schlotzhauer who no doubt was a relative of Henry’s wife Addie Schlotzhauer.

Shortly after the earthquake Henry and his son Henry Jr. opened a branch of the Pacific Truss Company in Oakland where they continued to manufacture trusses and surgical instruments. In 1908 the business was located 317 Elm Street. Other Oakland addresses were on 12th Street and at 520 8th Street which was a vacant lot in 2014. Between 1908 and 1925 the Pacific Truss Company regularly appeared in newspaper ads. A 1908 Oakland listing identified Henry Sr. as the President of the business and Henry Jr. as the Vice President. An ad in 1914 referred to the business as “Menge’s Truss Company”.  
Ad for Pacific Truss Co. Oakland Tribune

A November 24, 1911 headline in the Oakland Tribune announced: OAKLAND ATTRACTS FACTORIES, Many Branch Plants Established, IMPORTANT SALES MADE THIS WEEK! Business Property in Demand on Leases; Firms Improve Establishments. The story began:  That Oakland is rapidly developing as a manufacturing, commercial and residence center is readily seen by a glance at the many new factories, business places and residences that are being constructed.  Several large manufacturing firms, with distributing stations all over the country, are locating branches here, and new, modern business structures are being erected in the central section of Oakland. Near the end of the article the new businesses being established in Oakland were listed and included a note that H. Menge rented a storeroom at 431 San Pablo Avenue from A.A. Moore for $3000, so my great grandfather was part of the business boom happening in Oakland at that time.

During this same time period Henry also listed his business at various addresses in San Francisco. From 1901 – 1908 it was listed at 503, 321 and 329 Kearny and from 1924-1931 it was shown consistently at 445 Kearny. I found one ad that shows the business being at 636 Van Ness Avenue. 
Directory showing Henry Menge as President of Pacific
Truss Co. and Henry Jr. as VP & Treasurer. Addie & Fred
are also listed. 

Henry Jr. worked in the business his entire life and his son Lawrence also worked there. A 1903 directory listed Lawrence as a “foot specialist”. The 1910 census notes that Henry Jr.’s wife Maye was working for the company as well. Henry Sr’s other son Fred was also in the truss business. Fred is identified as President of the Pacific Truss Company in the 1921 Oakland directory. Five years later he is listed as manager at M&P Surgical Appliances – sounds like a competitor. Fred’s wife Beulah Trexler also worked in the business.  
Henry with 3 of his granddaughters Marion, Dorothy &
Margaret Menge. Taken at Lake Merritt in Oakland.

Henry’s third wife Teresa appeared with him on the 1930 census. I’ve found little about this woman. I know she was born in Maryland in the mid1860s and that her father was also from Maryland but her mother was from Germany. Teresa was 66 years old when she married Henry and he was 78 at the time. The 1940 census shows Henry living with “Patricia” but I suspect that Patricia is the full name and “Teresa” a nickname. Teresa is listed in the 1941 Oakland Directory as Henry’s widow and still living in the home they’d shared on 11th Avenue. Teresa died of pneumonia in 1946 and is buried at Evergreen Cemetery in East Oakland.

Henry died from a stroke on September 22, 1940 and is also buried at Evergreen Cemetery near an olive tree but there is no headstone marking his grave – possibly a commentary on how people thought of him. His granddaughter Lottie’s only recollection of Henry is that he rarely spoke English and sat in a chair in his kitchen on 11th Avenue where she and her mother Emma would go to visit with him. She also remembered that when he died his body was prepared and left in his home until the burial. There were lots of candles in the house and people came to visit to pay their respects. 
Henry's signature