Saturday, July 25, 2020

Solomon Pattillo 1750-1870 My 4th Great Grandfather on My Father's Side


Town Office in Boydton, Virginia. One of my
photos taken in 2017.
Solomon was a fourth great grandfather who lived his entire life in southeast Virginia. On most records, he spelled his name Pittillo and on some, it was spelled Pettillo. He was the son of James Pattillo Jr. and Martha Burge[1]. Solomon was born in about 1748 in Dinwiddie County when it was still part of British America several years before the American Revolution. Like his father and grandfather Solomon was a farmer – most likely a tobacco farmer. Most of the records I have for Solomon are land and court records. Those plus the inventory of his estate tell the story of his life.

Solomon was the second son of James and Martha. He had an older brother Augustine “Austin” who was born about 1747, and three younger brothers – Matthew born about 1749, James II born about 1750, and John born sometime before 1758. I believe Solomon was born in Dinwiddie County which was formed in 1752 and had been part of Prince George County. The county was named for Robert Dinwiddie who was Lieutenant Governor of Virginia 1751-1758.

When he was twenty-four Solomon married Sarah Major, daughter of Bernard Major Sr. and Elizabeth. Sarah’s family was also from southeast Virginia. Solomon and Sarah were married in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, and had four children.[2] 
Dinwiddie County seal where Solomon
and Sarah were marrried.

The oldest land record I’ve found for Solomon is from 1775. It was about a parcel owned jointly with two of his brothers – Austin and James II. This was land given to the brothers by their father, James Jr. In 1782 Solomon appeared on a list of early residents of Mecklenburg County, Virginia. He was living in Precinct 4 at the time and paid taxes on his property which included two African Americans. There were six whites living in his residence at that time which accounts for Solomon, Sarah and their four children. Mecklenburg was then and still is known for growing tobacco – a labor-intensive crop that required slave labor to cultivate and harvest the crops.

Solomon’s father James Pattillo gave Solomon a tract of land in Dinwiddie County in 1782. Solomon paid taxes on 400 acres of land in Dinwiddie County – this was probably the land his father gave him. The tax records for Dinwiddie County from 1788 to 1790 show that Solomon paid taxes on 404 acres of land but at some point, he sold a large portion of his land because the tax list from 1796 shows that he only paid tax on 133 ½ acres. He would have been 48 at the time so it is likely that he gave the land to one or more of his sons.

In the Pattillo Family book by Melba Crosse she notes, “Solomon must have lived in Brunswick County, Virginia for a while as he appears on the 1787 personal tax list of that county. However, he was back in Mecklenburg county by 1788. The 1800 tax list of this latter county lists Solomon and his sons, William (Williamson) and Samuel, who are living with him.”[3]

I found a court record from 1790 that shows that Solomon was involved in a dispute. He was sued by a business that later dropped the case. The paperwork lacks details of what the case was about or why it was settled.
Tobacco field in Mecklenburg. One of my photos from 2017.
Solomon was a farmer who most likely cultivated tobacco.


On January 3, 1793, Solomon purchased 156 acres in Mecklenburg from Benjamin Morgan. He paid 85 pounds for the property. That’s $2756 in 2020 dollars so it seems like a remarkable bargain. About a month later Solomon sold two Negro boys – Fell aged about 12 and Dick about 6, to Thomas Penticost. The price was 30 pounds and 8 shillings.

Solomon and John Farrar bought eight head of cattle from Stephen Mabry on January 17, 1793. The sale was recorded in Deed Book 8 of Mecklenburg County. In the same deed book Solomon sold a 150-acre parcel to John Allen and his wife Nancy. I have yet to figure out what the relationship between Solomon and John Farrar was.

One of the documents I found in the Boydton Courthouse was a complicated indenture. It involved Solomon, Bernard McAnally and Robert Baskerville. Apparently, Solomon owed McAnally 41 pounds 11 shillings 6 pence and a halfpenny. Another 5 shillings was paid by Baskerville and the court discharged him. Solomon sold a 96-acre parcel to Baskerville – land that he had previously purchased from Benjamin Morgan. Solomon also sold a 60-acre tract plus appurtenances to William Edward S. Tabb. According to the document, Baskerville was to keep the land until December 25th and then sell it and use the profits to pay the amount Solomon owed to McAnally. Any excess profit was to go to Solomon after covering expenses. This transaction, which seems rather convoluted to me, took place on July 21, 1795. All this was recorded in the Mecklenburg Court on June 13, 1796. But that’s not all – more than a year later in August of 1797 Solomon was summoned to appear in Chancery Court as the defendant in a case brought by Bernard McAnally & Company. McAnally claimed that Solomon still owed a 100-pound debt. 
This is the document dated 19 August 1797. It commands Solomon to appear in
court regarding the McAnally & Company matter.
In September 1798 Solomon, John Morgan and Stirling Morgan were asked to do an inventory of the estate of Sherwood Bugg. According to Crosse, “When the inventory of the estate of John Pettway, deceased was filed in Warren County, North Carolina on January 12, 1796, it included bonds and notes due from Solomon Petillo as well as many other people”.[4]
Another document from the McAnally case.

The following month Solomon was in court again. He appeared along with Samuel Goode, Mark Alexander and Samuel Holmes. Samuel sold a 306-acre parcel to Richard Crowder for 230 pounds – land that he purchased from John Allen and Benjamin Morgan. Apparently, this was land that was part of his wife’s dowry.

On January 6, 1800 Solomon was again involved with a convoluted court case. He agreed to lease two of his slaves – Pris and her son to William Drumright but only until December 25th. Then Drumright was to advertise Pris and her son for sale. The document said that he was to advertise the sale in three locations. They were the Courthouse, Sett’s Ordinary and Speed’s Store. They were to be advertised for ten days, then sold and the proceeds were to be used to pay a sixty-pound debt that Solomon owed to Crowder. 
One of two documents related to Solomon and a man named Crowder that he owed a debt to.

Two years later Solomon still owed Crowder money so he leased two additional slaves – Hanna and her son Cyrus to David Dortch. This was from January 4, 1802, until December 1st after which Dortch was to advertise and sell Hanna and her son at the courthouse on court day. Dortch was to pay off Crowder, cover his expenses, and give the rest to Solomon. 
Another partial Crowder vs. Solomon Pittillo document from the Boydton court records
Solomon executed his will on January 6, 1804, and he died a few days later in the town of Boydton which is in Mecklenburg County, Virginia. Even though three generations of my Pattillo ancestors lived and died in Boydton I have been unable to locate Solomon’s grave or other Pattillo graves nearby.

After his death, Solomon’s estate was inventoried by Pettus Phillips (his daughter-in-law’s father), Dabney Phillips (Pettus’s brother), Samuel Farrar and John Farrar. Some of the items listed on the inventory were 12 head of cattle, 12 hogs, 1 bay mare and colt, 1 black mare cold, 2 beds and furniture, 1 black walnut table, 1 pine chest, 1 loom, 1 Dutch oven, a loom, and two spinning wheels. Pretty standard stuff though it is somewhat unique that the appraisers noted the types of wood in the table and chest. The appraised value of these items, completed on January 9, 1804, came to 114 pounds and six shillings.
Solomon's signature on one of the documents I found at the Boydton courthouse

One of the documents from Solomon's probate packet.
This lists items sold from his estate after his death.
It is dated 7 Jan 1806 and was administered by
Solomon's son Williamson



[1] According to Crosse James Jrs. wife was named Elizabeth surname unknown. Multiple sources show Martha Burge as James Jrs. Wife including the FamilySearch family tree and FindAGrave. The will of Thomas Burge references his daughter Martha married to Solomon Pittillo.
[2] See my biography of Sarah Major Pattillo for the children’s names and dates of birth.
[3] Crosse Melba C. Patillo, Pattillo, Pattullo, and Pittillo Families, p. 101
[4] Crosse who cited Warren County, N.C. Rec. book Vol III, p. 80 by Mary Hinton Kerr

Sarah Major Pattillo 1750-1870 My 4th Great Grandmother on My Father's Side

The Claiborne Moody Home, Dinwiddie County, built in 1753.
This is the type of home that would have existed when Sarah
was born. Photos from the Virginia Heritage website.

Sarah Major was the wife of Solomon Pattillo. She was born about 1750 in the State of Virginia close to the border with North Carolina which is the same vicinity where our Pattillo ancestors lived. Sarah was the daughter of Bernard and Elizabeth Major. She had an older brother Bernard Major, Jr., a younger brother Samuel and a younger sister Joanna known as Joice.

Sarah married Solomon Pattillo in Dinwiddie County about 1772 when she would have been about twenty-two years old. They had four children – a small family by the standards of the times. Their eldest was a daughter Rebecca who was born about 1774. Then there were three sons, Williamson J. born about 1776, Edward M. born about 1778, and Samuel Henry Willis Pattillo, my third great grandfather, who was born about 1780. All of her children were born in Dinwiddie County. About 1788 the family moved from Dinwiddie to Mecklenburg county. They lived in Boydton which was the county seat.

The Boyd Tavern in Boydton existed in 1801 when Sarah
lived there with her family
Sarah died in Boydton in 1817 when she would have been about 67 years old. She left a short will that was written in beautiful script such that it is easy to read the entire text. Here is a transcript of the contents of Sarah’s will.

In the name of God amen I Sarah Pattillo of the County of Mecklenburg and State of Virginia being sick and weak but of sound mind and disposing memory and being disposed to dispose of such worldly estate as it hath pleased God to bless me with do give and bequeath the same in manner following.
Item, I give and bequeath to my son Williamson Pattillo one negro man by the name of Frank, also one feather bed and furniture to him and his heirs forever.
Item, I give and bequeath to my son Edward M. Pattillo one negro boy by the name of Littleton, two feather beds and furniture to him and his heirs forever.
Item, I give and bequeath to my son Samuel Pattillo one feather bed and furniture to him and his heirs forever.
Item, my will and desire is that all my property except such legacies as I have given above to my sons Williamson, Edward M. Pattillo and Samuel Pattillo after paying my just debts be equally divided between my four children. Viz. Williamson, Edward, Samuel and my daughter Rebecca Bradley. In witness whereof I have herewith set my hand and affixed my seal this fourth day of April one thousand Eight hundred and seventeen.
Sarah signed with an X.
Witnesses: William Bilbo, William L. Richards, Temperance Spinlock
At a court held for Mecklenburg County the 19th Day of May 1817 this last will and testament of Sarah Pattillo, deceased was presented into Court and proved by the oath of William Bilbo and William L. Richards, witness thereto and ordered to be recorded.
Teste Edward A Tubb
This is Sarah's will. 
According to Melba C. Crosse, “Sarah Major Pittillo gave her son, Williamson, power-of-attorney to reclaim a portion of her father’s estate which is evidenced by the following: Sarah Pittillo of Mecklenburg County, Virginia. For natural love and affection, I give my son Williamson Pattillo of said county and do by these presents constitute and appoint him sole attorney for me to sue for and recover my portinate part of the estate of my sister, Nancy, late wife of John Cabe of Orange County, North Carolina. And to divide the property of said deceased between the heirs of Bernard Major, Sr., deceased, late of Dinwiddie County, Virginia, or the legal representative of said heirs, his receiving for me and to my use one-fifth part and I do employ one or more attorneys-at-law under him _____ to revoke _____ this 7th day of November 1808.

Witnessed by Edward Pattillo and Major Brasfield.[1] 
Private residence in Boydton, Virginia. One of my photos
taken in 2017.



[1] Crosse, Melba C. Patillo, Pattillo, Pattullo, and Pittillo Families, p.102, Orange Co. N.C. Deed book 13, p. 211

Saturday, June 20, 2020

Daniel Stover 1826-1864 My 2nd Great Granduncle on my Father's Side Part 1

Daniel Stover

Daniel was the youngest son of William Ward Stover and Sarah Murray Drake. He was born on November 14, 1826 in Elizabethton, Carter County, Tennessee, and was named after his grandfather Daniel Stover Sr. who arrived in Carter County in about 1782. Daniel’s father William was a farmer and actively engaged in civic affairs. He also owned an iron forge for a time. During his youth, Daniel no doubt worked on the farm along with his two older brothers David Lincoln Stover, my 2nd great grandfather, born in 1820 and Samuel Murray Stover born in 1824.

In 1850 Daniel appeared on the Carter County census living with his parents and brother Samuel who was identified as a physician. Daniel’s older brother David was already married and had left home. Daniel’s age was shown as 23 but nothing was recorded in the column labeled “Profession, Occupation or Trade”.
1850 Census for Elizabethton TN that
Daniel and his family appear on

In 1852 William sold five tracts of land to Daniel for $1 with the understanding that William and Sarah would continue to live on the land for the remainder of their lives. The property was adjacent to the Watauga River just outside the town of Elizabethton. Each parcel of land was described in detail using local landmarks to define the boundaries. The deed specifically mentioned Spanish oak, white oak, black oak, hickory, black walnut, chestnut, ash, sourwood, sassafras, and a white oak “marked with a knife” as landmarks. One parcel was 94 acres in size, the second was 110 acres, a third 75 ¼ acres, the fourth 195 acres and the last parcel which abutted the property of Abraham Drake – Daniel’s grandfather, was 50 acres. This last tract was land William had gotten from the State of Tennessee on September 29, 1836. Originally it was a 100-acre parcel that had been divided between William and Daniel’s uncle Samuel Drake. This parcel was on the north side of the Watauga River on Green Mountain. William gave Daniel the land and all the improvements and appurtenances theron, which means he got the house, the barns, slave quarters, and all the other buildings and structures.
Portrait of Mary Johnson Stover from
the NPS website

Marriage and Children
Daniel married Mary Johnson, the daughter Andrew Johnson who was then a member of the United States Congress representing the state of Tennessee. One year later Johnson was elected Governor. He served as Governor for four years, became a US senator in 1857, then in 1862, during the Civil War, he was appointed as Military Governor. Johnson was elected as Abraham Lincoln’s vice president in 1864 and tragically became president the following year when Lincoln was assassinated.

Daniel and Mary met while Mary as studying to become a teacher. They were married on April 27, 1852 in Greenville, Tennessee where Mary was from but they returned to Carter County to live and farm on the land that his father had given him. According to an article in the Watauga Democrat from 1919, “their home was the scene of many brilliant parties and many prominent people were entertained in its walls.” It was a place that Mary’s father Andrew Johnson regularly enjoyed visiting.

The birth of their first child, a daughter named Elizabeth “Eliza” Johnson Stover, named after Mary’s mother, occurred on May 11, 1855, followed by another daughter Sarah Drake Stover on June 27, 1857. Sarah was named after her paternal grandmother Sarah Murray Drake. Their third child, and only son Andrew Johnson Stover was born on March 6, 1860. You can read a full biography of Mary Johnson Stover on the First Ladies website[1]. During this time Daniel’s older brother David Lincoln Stover died at the age of 38 from unknown causes.
Daniel and Mary's three children, Andrew
Johnson Stover, Eliza and Sarah Stover

When the 1860 census was taken Daniel and Mary were still living in Elizabethton. Daniel was the Assistant Marshall who recorded the names of his family members and those of his neighbors for the census. He completed the census on June 15th identifying himself as a farmer that owned land valued at $18,000 and personal property worth $12,000. This was substantially more than his neighbors. Families that appeared on the same page with Daniel’s family include the Bowers who owned land was valued at $1500, A.T. Carriger’s was worth $7000, and Jackson Carriger’s property was shown as $5000. The Stovers inherited their wealth from Isaac and Mary Lincoln. When the census was taken Daniel was 33, Mary 28, Eliza 5, Sarah 2 and Andrew only two months of age.

Civic Involvement
According to Frank Merritt in his book Early History of Carter County, Tennessee 1760-1861, Daniel was one of five men who represented Elizabethton at a convention in Knoxville on May 30,1861 to discuss what position Tennessee would take during the Civil War. The other four were Abraham Tipton, Charles P. Toncray, J.P.T. Carter and John W. Cameron. Unfortunately, their preference to remain loyal to the Union was overruled by representatives from other Tennessee counties that voted to join the confederate states. According to Merritt, "thus it can be seen that the great majority of Carter County citizens, both men and women, openly proclaimed their allegiance to the National Union. His paper notes that East Tennessee was overwhelmingly Unionist, they had long been conscious of a sectional difference from the other parts of the state .... the tide of secession sentiment .... reached them too late to work its full effects .... a lack of wealth made them feel they would have no place among a slaveholding aristocracy ... the majority harbored a real political hatred for the Democratic party .... so closely connected with the secession movement."[2] Daniel’s own father William Stover was among those who favored secession from the Union – an all too common circumstance which divided families.
Photo of Daniel and Mary's home in Elizabethton, TN from
the book Images of Carter County
Daniel and J.P. Wilcox were asked to organize a debate between men who represented both sides of the issue – those for and opposed to succession. The organizers wanted it to be a fair debate so one of the terms they agreed on was that there would be no applause during the speeches. Not knowing about this provision at some point during the meeting Daniel’s own sister-in-law, Mrs. Murray Stover (Caroline Brooks) threw a bouquet of flowers onto the stage in response to what one of the orators had said. “Instantly the whole audience arose in confusion, pistols were drawn and it looked for a moment as though there would be bloodshed.”[3] Caroline’s husband, Samuel Murray Stover supported the confederate position.
Daniel and Mary's home where President Andrew Johnson died,
after it was moved and restored. My photo
In June of 1861, Daniel was one of twenty-six delegates from Carter County who attended a convention in Greeneville where resolutions were drawn up urging East Tennessee to remain in the Union. According to Dawn Peters who wrote a biography of Daniel for the Carter County Centennial book, When Tennessee did leave the Union, many east Tennesseans were furious and vowed to aid the Union.

Mary Johnson Stover and Daniel Stover from the
Johnson home museum in Greenville, TN. My photo
On July 8, 1861 another convention took place in Greenville. According to Scott and Angel the Union advocates voices were squelched. They claimed that “Disunionists in many places had charge of the polls, and Union men, when voting, were denounced as Lincolnites and abolitionists.”[4] Sadly, 159 years later our nation is still dealing with challenges to our voting rights. East Tennessee voted against secession by a majority of more than 20,000 votes. The vote in Carter County was 86 for and 1343 against secession. In the adjacent Johnson County, the vote was 111 versus 787 against secession.[5] “From the very beginning of the talk about secession during the presidential campaign of 1860 and up to the inauguration of President Lincoln, March 4, 1861, the majority of the people of the State of Tennessee, including the slave owners, were loyal to the Federal Government. This fact was emphasized by the election of February 1861, when the State voted against secession by a majority of 68,000.[6] “When the State cast its fortunes with the Confederacy through the dominating influence of the civil and military authorities, a large majority of the people of East Tennessee adhered with greater tenacity to the Union cause as dangers thickened about them.”[7]
Photo of Colonel Daniel Stover
from the Library of Congress
website.

Scott and Angel provide two reasons that explain East Tennessee’s support of the Union cause. First, the soil and climate of the region was not suited to growing cotton or other large crops that warranted the need for slaves, and second because the people of East Tennessee were poor and feared that if Tennessee became a slave state their jobs and livelihood would be threatened. “They could see that by fighting for slavery they were only fastening upon themselves the yoke of poverty, and the ban of social ostracism, hence slavery was not a question of paramount importance to them unless it was in its abolition.”[8]

“After the two conventions had been held, the one at Knoxville and the other at Greenville, and the Union leaders had exhausted every expedient available to retain the State in the Union, or form a neutral State of East Tennessee, seeing that arguments, memorials and resolutions were of no avail, and believing they had a right to their opinions as freemen, and believing the action of the State Government fraudulent and illegal, they boldly ignored its authority. Having done this the bitter feelings of the authorities became more pronounced, and the Union people began to secretly arm and drill with the intention of protecting themselves and rendering such aid as was possible to the Union cause, which they believed to be right.”[9]


[2] Early History of Carter County TN 1760 – 1861, Samuel Merritt, Press of Archer & Smith Printing Co., 1950.
[3] History 13th Regiment, Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry, USA, Samuel W. Scott & Samuel P. Angel, P.W. Ziegler & Co, 1903., p. 39
[4] Scott & Angel, p. 42
[5] Scott & Angel, p. 44
[6] Scott & Angel, p. 35
[7] Scott & Angel, p. 47
[8] Scott & Angel, p. 48
[9] Scott & Angel, p. 55

Daniel Stover 1826 -1864 Part 2

This portrait of Daniel Stover hangs in Long Shadow in
Bluff City, the home that Daniel's widow lived in for a time
Role During the Civil War as a Bridge Burner
Daniel joined the war effort in 1861 and shortly thereafter volunteered to participate for the Union in the effort to destroy the bridges on the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia railroad. The objective was to hinder the south’s ability to move supplies to their troops. These volunteers were known as “BridgeBurners”. The plan to burn the bridges was conceived by General W.B. Carter. After the plan was approved by President Lincoln, Carter met with General George H. Thomas. According to Scott and Angel, “The plans of Mr. Carter were to select one or two of the most trusted and daring men in each locality where a bridge was to be burned, and these men were sworn to keep the secret until the day set for burning all the bridges simultaneously. The one or two trusted individuals were on that day to notify as many of the bravest and most discreet men in the vicinity of each place where a bridge was to be burned after night fall of that day, and designate a leader.” Daniel Stover was one of those leaders. He was charged with burning the bridges at Carter’s Depot and Zollicoffer (now Bluff City).

Dr. Abram Jobe persuaded Daniel Stover to spare the bridge that crossed the Watauga River at Carter's Depot because it was so heavily guarded and Jobe feared that Daniel’s men would be imprisoned if they did so. Upon hearing Jobe’s argument, Daniel responded, “You espoused the Union cause before I did, and are as much entitled to your opinion in this matter as I am, or even as Mr. Lincoln himself. You have taken a great interest in the welfare and integrity of the Government, and if you wish to save the bridge at Carter's Depot you can do so but nothing can dissuade me from attempting to burn the bridge across the Holston river whatever may be the consequences; but you may go immediately to Carter's Depot and see Mr. Cunningham who has charge of affairs there; say to him what you have said to me and tell him I have consented for you to have your own way about the burning of that bridge .[1]
The cover of Harpers Magazine featured
a story about the Bridge Burners in 1862 

“Col. Stover having selected about thirty men from among the citizens, the most prudent reliable men that could be found in the vicinity of Elizabethton, and swore them into the military service at Reuben Miller's barn at the head of Indian Creek, for that purpose. These men coming from different directions met near Elizabethton and the nature of the enterprise was explained to them by Col. Stover, and they were informed by him that in addition to the honor attached to doing so great a service for the country they were to be paid by the Federal Government. He explained to them also that Gen. Thomas with his army was then, as he believed, on the borders of East Tennessee, and immediately upon the burning of the bridges, so that Confederate troops could not be hurried in by rail, the Federal army would advance rapidly into East Tennessee, finish the destruction of the railroad and protect the bridge burners and all other loyal people. Being provided with turpentine which had been procured by Dr. James M. Cameron, and a supply of rich pine knots which would easily ignite and set fire to the bridge, the company crossed the Watauga river at Drake's Ford (This is probably a reference to land owned by Abraham Drake who was Daniel’s grandfather), one mile east of Elizabethton, proceeded through Turkey Town and down Indian Creek, being recruited along the way by a number of men who joined them. Reaching a point about one-half mile south of Zollicoffer the men were halted and dismounted near a woods where the horses were concealed and Elijah Simerly, Pleasant M. Williams and Benjamin F. Treadway left to guard them. Col. Stover said to them: "All who are willing to go with me to the bridge and assist in burning it, fall in line." The following men fell into line : John F. Burrow, John G. Burchfield, Gilson O. Collins, Watson Collins, Landon Carter, M. L. Cameron, Jackson Carriger, James T. Davenport, Samuel Davenport, Daniel Ellis, John Fondrin, William M. Gourley, Henderson Garland, Wm. F. M. Hyder, J. K. Haun, Jacob Hendrixson, Mark Hendrixson, Jonas H. Keen, George Maston, B. M. G. O'Brien, Berry Pritchard, Henry Slagle, and James P. Scott. Col. Stover and G. O. Collins had masks over their faces which had been prepared by Mrs. Lizzie Carter. The other men were not disguised in any way. When the men signified their willingness to go G. O. Collins gave the command in an undertone to move towards the bridge which they did, moving quickly and in good order. Arriving at the south end of the bridge they did not find any guard at first. They formed the men, part of them facing up the river, and others down the river, while six or eight of them went hastily through the bridge nearly to the north end of it. The two guards, Stanford Jenkins and William Jones, rebel soldiers, were under the bridge, the former at the south end and the latter at the north end. Hearing the men, Jones ran and John F. Burrow raised his gun to shoot him, but was ordered not to fire. As the party returned from the north end of the bridge Jenkins came up from under the bridge and recognizing G. O. Collins, spoke to him and said, "Ollie, here's my gun, don't kill me." G. O. Collins, M. L. Cameron and J. M. Emmert then hastily placing the pine and pouring the turpentine on the bridge applied matches to it and it was soon in flames. They hastened back to their horses, taking Jenkins with them.”[2]  
An excerpt from Paper of Andrew Johnson by Paul H. Bergeran
that gives an account of how Daniel's body was transferred
back to Elizabethton, 1866.
In the end all of the bridges were attacked and many of them were burned on the night of November 8, 1861. Daniel led the effort that successfully burned the Zollicoffer Bridge that was located between Bristol and Carter’s Depot. 
Union sentry guarding Strawberry Plains Bridge ca. 1864 from the
Library of Congress website
Carter County Rebellion
Though promised General Thomas’s troops did not come to protect the people of East Tennessee and the men who had risked their lives to burn the bridges were left to fend for themselves. Some were captured and hung or shot. Others fled to the mountains to hide where they suffered from exposure, hardship, hunger, cold and rain. Some enlisted in the Union Army and others went home. Daniel fled to the mountains and encamped at a place near the residence of John W. Hyder in the Doe River Cove. “Here the men were furnished with provisions, beef cattle, sheep, flour and cornmeal and feed for the horses by the farmers residing in the neighborhood. They remained there until the 16th of November. Constant rumors of the enemy had been circulated through the camp and they were expected at any time. Gen Leadbetter had arrived at Johnson City on the 15th with a large Confederate force and two mountain howitzers and moved out on the Taylorsville road towards the Union camp.[3]
Letter to Daniel from Edwin M. Stanton,
Secretary of War authorizing Daniel to form
a Regiment of Volunteers.

“Col. Stover and his officers, realizing the hopelessness of resisting the large body of trained and well-armed rebel troops with men who had no experience in war and no effective arms, and having entirely, despaired of receiving Federal aid, disbanded the army, each man to take care of himself as best he could. Some fled to the mountains, some to Kentucky, while others returned to their homes, hoping to receive some clemency from the Confederate authorities. Most of these were doomed to disappointment as they were sent to prison, there to endure all kinds of curses and abuse, and many to suffer death. Such was the fiasco known as "The Carter County Rebellion."[4]

The biography of Eliza Johnson says that “On November 8, 1861 Daniel led the burning of the Holston River. For this he was hunted down, and targeted for capture by Confederate troops. This forced Daniel and his men to seek refuge in the caves of the nearby mountains during the subsequent winter months and that is where he contracted tuberculosis. Most of the other men were among the working poor with families unable to provide their own sustenance. Daniel’s wife Mary directed that her farm’s livestock be slaughtered to keep the families fed. Not wanting to tip off the Confederates searching for the militia in the mountains, however, often inhibited her from smuggling the food baskets she and her mother prepared for them. Many often starved or froze to death in the mountains, a fact which weighed heavily on Mary.”[5]
Daniel's Signature




[1] Scott & Angel, p. 69
[2] Scott & Angel, p. 70-71
[3] Scott & Angel, p. 84
[4] Scott & Angel, p. 85
[5] First Ladies website, Eliza Johnson biography.

Daniel Stover 1826 - 1864 Part 3


Daniel Commissioned as a Colonel
Colonel Daniel Stover
On February 27, 1862 Daniel was offered a commission as a Colonel in the 4th East Tennessee Infantry. The official certificate was signed by Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War stating that Daniel Stover had been appointed by the President of the United States[1]. As part of his commission Daniel was authorized to raise a regiment of volunteers from Tennessee. Many of the men that had fought with Daniel in the Carter Rebellion joined his unit. Daniel was instructed to submit a letter of acceptance along with his oath of allegiance and basic facts about his date of birth and place of residence. His commission was for a period of three years or the term of the war.

Daniel was also provided with a four-page handwritten letter that described in detail the positions needed to constitute a regiment. It read, “You are hereby authorized to raise in the State of Tennessee one regiment of volunteer Infantry, to serve for three years or the War, of which you are appointed the Colonel. This regiment will be organized as prescribed by the Act of Congress, approved July 22, 1861, “to authorize the employment of volunteers” as follows.” It then listed the maximum and minimum numbers needed to fill each position. The total ranged between 843 and 1023 men. It went on to explain, “The organization of each company of the regiment will be as prescribed by the same Act of Congress” – this added an additional 83 to 101 men, and then stated, “When the regiment shall have been organized, there will be allowed to it one Chaplain, to be appointed by the Regimental Commander, on the vote of the Field Officers and Company commanders on duty with the regiment at the time the appointment shall be made. The Chaplain thus appointed must be a regularly ordained Minister of a Christian denomination. He will be duly mustered into the Service and borne on the Field and Staff roll of your regiment.”[2]
Letter describing how to form a regiment, page 1 of 4

Capt. Stover must have been greatly admired by the Union supporters in Carter County because many of them traveled by night to join his unit in Kentucky – the 4th Tennessee Infantry. It is said that the “Old Joe Meredith home on Upper Gap Creek was where secret Union meetings were held.”[3] He may have been well liked but according to local historian Robert Nave, “Daniel was not a successful soldier- all of the men under his command were captured.”. Robert noted that “Daniel had no previous military experience.  He was given his commission because he married the President's daughter.[4]

One of the documents that Daniel submitted with his letter of acceptance was a letter explaining that he had in fact sworn an oath to support the Confederacy but that he had done so at the point of a bayonet. His letter described the situation as follows, “In answer to the question asking me if I ever took the oath to support the Southern Confederacy, I make the following statement. Myself, together with thousands other Loyal East Tennessee Union men, were compelled, coerced and forced at the point of the bayonet by the authority of the Southern Confederacy to take an oath. Said oath to the best of my recollection was about in the following words. You do solemnly swear, that your will be a true law-abiding citizen to the Confederate States of America. This oath (if on oath at all) I took under protest and against my will. Contending at the time and ever have followed; that the oath was not binding and that the pretended authority that compelled coerced and forced me to take it had no right to require or administer such. I contend now that I have not yielded a voluntary support to any intended government authority forever or constitution within the United States. General, I was living in East Tennessee until October 1862 when I came through the lines to Nashville, Tennessee on the 25th day of November 1862. I came up with my authority to raise said regiment at Cincinnati, Ohio.[5]
Document showing Daniel's commission
signed by Andrew Johnson, Governor of
the State of Tennessee

Daniel’s letter of acceptance was dated December 3, 1862. In it he notes that he was mustered in on November 25, 1862 by Col. Robert Johnson, Commanding the 4th Regiment of Tennessee. Robert Johnson was his brother-in-law. Daniel signed his letter “I have the honor to be your obedient servant”. The official certificate showing his command was signed by his father-in-law, Andrew Johnson who was then the Governor of Tennessee. 

From Eliza Johnson's biography we know that "Starting in mid-September 1862, the privations endured by Eliza Johnson essentially made her a wartime refugee. For several nights, she and her daughter Mary Stover also prepared and smuggled food into nearby mountain caves where her son-in-law and his fellow Union military sought shelter and eluded detection by Confederates."

In May of 1863 Daniel submitted a letter that is difficult to read but in it he described the progress he had made in assembling a regiment of men. He concluded the letter by noting that since May of 1862 123 more recruits have come into camps.[6]

The Fourth Infantry was led by Colonel Daniel Stover, Lieutenant-Colonels Michael L. Patterson, James W.M. Grayson, Thomas H. Reeves and Major Gaines Lawson. This regiment was recruited at Louisville, in the spring of 1863, under the direction of Col. Daniel Stover of Carter county, Tennessee. It was composed wholly of exiles from East Tennessee, who were brought out of the Confederate lines by officers and pilots sent in for that purpose.
Letter of Daniel's appointment as Colonel
signed by Edwin M. Staten, Secretary of War

On May 29, 1863 the regiment left Louisville and was mustered into service the following June. The regiment remained in upper East Tennessee and in the vicinity until July, when it was ordered to Nashville to be mustered out. Col. Stover, who organized the regiment, was early attacked by consumption and saw no service in the field.[7]

The very last paragraph in the 510-page book History of the 13th Regiment provides a succinct summary of Daniel’s life. It read, “Col. Daniel, Stover was a native of Carter county, and married the daughter of Andrew Johnson, who became President of the United States. He assisted in recruiting the Fourth Tennessee Infantry, but owing to ill health brought on, doubtless by exposure in hiding from the rebel authorities in the winter of 1861-62, when he was under the ban of that government for burning the Zollicoffer bridge, he did not see much active service in the field. He died at Nashville, Tennessee, before the close of the war, Col. Stover was a kind and genial gentleman, a loyal citizen and would have made a brave and valuable officer. When the war came, he was an extensive slave holder, but, like a true patriot he was willing to give up all for his country.”[8]

Sickened by Tuberculosis
The biography of Eliza Johnson, Mary’s mother and wife of Governor Andrew Johnson mentions that in early 1863 she sought treatment for consumption at a sulfuric spa in Vevey, Indiana. It also notes that her son-in-law joined her there before they left for Louisville, Kentucky.
One of many documents
in Daniel's compiled
service record on the
Fold3 website

As early as July of 1863 Daniel’s compiled service records show that he was absent due to disease. The record stated, "his lungs are very debilitated by frequent pneumonia, he is very dehydrated... and he is unfit to resume duty and won't be for the next 30 days ..." Initially, he got sick while in Louisville, Kentucky, “he contracted a severe cold which affected very seriously his lungs …” On December 8, 1863 a letter written to Col. T.S. George in Nashville described Daniel’s condition in grave detail. He wrote, “I desire to call your attention to the case of Colonel Daniel Stover of the 4th East Tennessee Infantry. He has been for several months seriously indisposed - at times confined to his bed - and unable to perform the duties incidental to field service. As you are aware, this Regiment was recently captured at McMinnville and the other officers are now engaged in its reorganization. I therefore respectfully ask that leave of absence may be extended to Col. Stover until he shall be restored to health as to be able to take the command of his Regiment”

Monthly Compiled Service Records for Daniel for the remainder of 1863 and into 1864 convey similar reports of illness leading up to August 1, 1864 when Daniel wrote his letter of resignation. In it he wrote, “I have the honor to tender my resignation as Colonel of the Fourth Tennessee Infantry. Exposure whilst lying out in the mountains of East Tennessee, to avoid the confederates who were seeking my destination, added to what I have undergone since my entry into the U.S. Service, and has destroyed a once vigorous constitution and rendered me totally unfit for service. I enclose the certificate of surgeon Knoffe who has been my attending surgeon for many months.” In the attached letter R. Knoffe, Surgeon with the 10th Tennessee Regiment reported that Daniel suffered from phthisis pulmonalis which means he had tuberculosis or what was then referred to as consumption. Knoffe added, “he will never be fit for any service.” Knoffe and Daniel’s letters were accompanied by two other letters attesting to the truthfulness of their statements.
Daniel's letter of resignation.
A Field and Staff Muster Roll shows that his resignation was final on August 10, 1864. Daniel died in Nashville, Tennessee on December 18, 1864. His body was returned to Carter County where he was buried next to his parents in the Stover section of the Drake-Fitzsimmons Cemetery. Another Field & Staff Muster Roll dated August 2, 1865 recorded a final payment made to his family. Then there is a gap in his military records until 1868 when Daniel’s widow Mary applied for a pension based on Daniel’s service. When the war ended Mary returned to their farm and found the buildings destroyed and the food reserves depleted. Widowed, she and her three children lived with her parents in Nashville. After their father became President, Mary’s sister Martha Patterson proceeded to join the President in Washington while Mary remained in Tennessee with her brothers, mother, three children, one niece and one nephew.

Daniel is buried beside his parents in the Drake-Fitzsimmons
Cemetery in Elizabethton, TN. His wife is buried with her
father and other family members.
After submitting all the necessary documents and affidavits Mary was granted a pension of $30 per month. After submitting more paperwork, the government added a stipend of $2 per month for each child under the age of sixteen. But when she married William R. Brown on April 20, 1868, she lost her pension. When Mary divorced Brown in 1879, for unknown reasons, she again had to submit documentation to reapply for her pension which was approved by the 47th US Congress on January 5, 1883 as Senate Bill No. HR 3106.

Sources for Daniel Stover Posts: Fold3 Compiled Military Records; 1850 and 1860 censuses, Carter Co. deeds dated April 14 and 19, 1852; Tennessee marriage records; Early History of Carter County Tennessee 1760 – 1861 by Frank Merritt; District 9 Carter TN 1862-1918 Tax records; records from the Collection of Robert Nave; WAG article by William Hicks; Historical Reminiscences of Carter County Tennessee by Mildred Kozsuch; President families of the United States of America by Burke, Carter County, Tennessee Tombstone Records by James Douthan; Affairs at Nashville, a Times correspondent article; correspondence with Dale Jenkins, descendant of Solomon Hendrix Stover; The Lincoln Family Magazine by William Montgomery Clemens;  First Ladies website http://www.firstladies.org/; the NPS website for President Andrew Johnson, https://www.nps.gov/anjo/learn/historyculture/timeline; Chronicling America, Knoxville Daily Chronicle, Tennessee, March 25, 1879, image 3.


[1] Edmund M. Stanton letter dated 27 February 1862, Fold3.
[2] Handwritten letter written to Daniel Stover in his packet on the Fold3 website.
[3] Note found on Ancestry 15 February 2013
[4] Personal conversation with historian Robert Nave in 2012.
[5] One of the documents in Daniel’s packet on Fold3.
[6] Stover, Daniel, letter headed D.O. Louisville, Ohio, dated 27 Feb. 1862, Fold3.
[7] Regimental History, Fourth Infantry, Tennessee, Union Army, Volume 4, page 379 of U.S. Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles, p.  
[8] Scott & Angel, p. 510